Located on the Eastern coast of Canada, Nova Scotia makes up part of the Atlantic Provinces and the Maritimes. It's a peninsula connected to New Brunswick on the North West. The island of Cape Breton is connected to the mainland by the Canso Causeway, a manmade causeway. The rest of the province is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean.
The capital of Nova Scotia is Halifax, the only city in the province. The majority of Nova Scotians live near the coast, with very few towns and villages within the central province.
Parrsboro, on the Bay of Fundy, is Nova Scotia's most fossil-rich area, and is home to the Fundy Geological Museum.
Originally home to the Mi'kmaq people, throughout its history of European settlement, the province was home to French settlers, naming themselves Acadians. Port Royal, on the North Western coast, is the first confirmed European settlement in North America, settled in 1605.
Nova Scotia's flag is based on the flag of Scotland, but reversed, so a blue cross on a white background. In the centre of the flag is the shield of the Royal Arms of Scotland.
Nova Scotia is Latin for New Scotland, named by Sir William Alexander, a Scottish poet. He was granted 'rights' to colonize the land that would be Nova Scotia, and sold land titles to wealthy people in Scotland, granting them the status of Lord. When the newly minted lords came to claim the land they had purchased, their ships were fired upon by the Acadians, who were actually living in Nova Scotia and had already claimed the land.