Catamarca is located in the Northwestern part of Argentina. It is bordered on the West by Chile, on the North by Salta, on the East by Tucumán and Santiago del Estero, Córdoba on the Southeast, and La Rioja on the South.
The capital of Catamarca is San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca. Most of the province is dominated by the Andes, meaning the majority of the population is located in the valleys between the mountains. In the East there are fewer mountains, so the towns and cities are located around rivers.
Catamarca used to be inhabited by the Diaguitas people, but they were either beaten by the Spanish, or assimilated by them.
The gold around the flag represents the gold of the region, and also symbolises the identity and heritage of the province. The cerulean and silver (or white) are for the country's national colours. The red represents the "blood of the province", starting with the Calchaquí people, and going through the blood spilled by the various people fighting for the province throughout its history. The olive leaves around the central sun represent peace, and there are sixteen lobes for each of the province's departments. The central sun, being the same as the one on the national flag, is to symbolise the province's integration with the country.
The name Catamarca comes from either the Quechua words "cata" and "marca" meaning "fortress on the slope", or from Aymaran "catán" and "marca" meaning "small town".