The province of Buenos Aires is located on the Northern coast of Argentina. It is bordered by Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires to the Northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the East and South, Neuquén and La Pampa to the West, Córdoba to the Northwest, and Santa Fe and Entre Rios to the North.
The capital of Buenos Aires is the city of La Plata. It is both the largest and most populous province in Argentina, with the majority of the province's people living along the border with Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires in the metropolitan region of the country's capital city. The rest of the province's population is spread out across the region.
The area that is now the province of Buenos Aires was once populated by native peoples, like the semi-nomadic Charrúas, and the semi-sedentary Querandíes. The Spanish first settled what would become the city of Buenos Aires in 1536, but evacuated it in 1541 after relations with the native peoples became hostile. The city was settled again by the Spanish, this time permanently, in 1580. For the next few centuries, the number of native people in the region fell as plagues from Europe spread through the region. Those people that survived the plagues were then subject to attempted extermination during the Conquest of the Desert starting in 1879. Any native peoples left after the conquest either joined other native populations in other regions, or assimilated into European life.
Argentina gained independence from Spain in 1816, which led to the creation of the province of Buenos Aires, with its capital city of Buenos Aires. Since the capital was the major source of income for the country, the other provinces started a civil war which led to the province of Buenos Aires becoming an independent state in 1852. After some more warring, the province re-joined the country in 1861. To stop the consistent conflict, the city of Buenos Aires was separated from the province and federalized in 1880, with the city of La Plata becoming the province's new capital.
The flag of the province of Buenos Aires was chosen during a school design competition across the region. The green of the flag represents the fields and plains of the province; the blue represents the rivers, the ocean, and the sky; the red represents the the idea of being a part of the country of Argentina; the yellow represents the bountiful production of the province. The sun and the laurel on the flag represent the splendor and glory of the province; the gear represents industry, with the sunflower representing agriculture; the red line represents the horizon.
The name Buenos Aires comes from the city of Buenos Aires, which translates to "fair winds", referring to the ideal climate of the city and region.