Henan is a province located in the central-East portion of China. It is bordered by Shanxi, Hebei, and Shandong to the North, Shandong and Anhui to the East, Hubei to the South, and Shaanxhi (not Shanxi) to the West.
The capital of Henan is Zhengzhou, though Nanyang is the most populous city. The rest of the population is rather spread out across the province, with fewer settlements located in the far Western section.
The economy of the province is based on mining (aluminium and coal), manufacturing, and tourism. Farming is also a major part of the economy, due to the very fertile farmlands of the province.
Henan, along with Shanxi and Shaanxi, is considered to be where Chinese civilization began around the twenty-first century BC. Henan has been strategically important for a number of dynasties throughout China's history, including the Xia, Shang, Zhou, Ying, Qin, Han, Xin, Jin, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing.
In 1911, the Republic of China overthrew the Qing dynasty. Railways were built through the province, especially through Zhengzhou, transforming if from a small town to a major city. In the ensuing Sino-Japanese War, and the aftermath that followed, Henan was hit hard by famine, and again during China's "Great Leap Forward".
Following China's acceptance of capitalism in the late 70s, Henan began to grow economically, and is now an important contributor to China's economy.
In the interest of national unity, China does not have provincial flags.
Henan translates from Chinese (河南) to mean "South of the river", referring to the Yellow River that runs through the province, an important travel route for the country, and the cause of the fertile lands of Henan.