Located on the Eastern coast of Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador is one of the four Atlantic Provinces. It consists of a large area of land North of Quebec (Labrador), and and island off the coast of that same area (Newfoundland).
The capital is St. John's, located on the Avalon Peninsula on the Eastern-most part of the island of Newfoundland. Being the only city, the majority of Newfoundlanders live there. On the island, the larger of the remaining towns are located on the Southern or Western coasts. In Labrador, there are communities along the Eastern coastline, as well as two larger population areas: Happy Valley-Goose Bay near the centre of Labrador and Labrador City along the border of Quebec.
The majority of Newfoundland and Labrador's economy is based on fishing in Newfoundland, and mining and energy production in Labrador. There have been some gas and oil deposits found off of the coast of Newfoundland in an area known as the Grand Banks.
Originally home to natives known as the Beothuk, Newfoundland was discovered by Vikings around 1000AD, based upon their settlements in L'Anse aux Meadows, on the Northern-most part of the island. Due to pressures and mistreatment from the European settlers, Newfoundland's native population has gone extinct. The native people of Labrador, traditionally people of Inuit descent, are still around today, mostly living in isolated communities along the Eastern coast of Labrador.
The white of the flag symbolises snow and ice, abundant in the Northern reaches of Labrador. The blue represents the sea, and its importance to the province, further emphasized by the white trident within the blue. The red symbolises human effort, made into two triangles; one for the island of Newfoundland and one for Labrador. The golden arrow represents confidence and hope for the future. When the flag is used vertically as a banner, the gold arrow can be seen as a sword, to represent the sacrifices of war (specifically Newfoundland's major contributions to World Wars I and II).
Newfoundland was named by King George IV of England. Giovanni Caboto named the island St. John's Isle in 1497, and the King referred to it as the "New Found Launde". Newfoundland was an independent nation until 1949, when it joined Canada as its last province.