Shuangbaisaurus anlongbaoensis was described in 2017 by Wang Guo-Fu, You Hai-Lu, Pan Shi-Gang, and Wang Tao.
It was found in Liuna Village, Anlongbao (also spelled Alongbu) Township in Shuangbai County, Yunnan Province, China.
Shuangbaisaurus anlongbaoensis is a basal theropod, similar to Dilophosaurus and Sinosaurus, evidenced by its age and crests. Its location in the taxon, and specific family have not as of yet been reported. It was found in dark purple siltstones in the lower Fengjiahe Formation from the Early Jurassic. If the Fengjiahe Formation is similar in composition to the Lufeng Formation, then the dark purple of the formation corresponds to the Hettangian age.
The holotype consists of a partial skull, missing the nasals and parts of the maxillae; also present is the lower jaw.
Shuangbaisaurus is shown to be a new species by the unique features found on its skull. It has parasagittal crests at least over its eyes (whether they were elsewhere is not conclusive based on the partial skull of the holotype), which are unique among the crested theropods, as their crests start at the nasals and end before the eyes. The shape of its upper and lower jaws, and the shape and size of fenestra on the top of the skull. It contains features that are present in both Dilophosaurus and Sinosaurus, but unique to each, marking the holotype of Shuangbaisaurus as a distinct species.
Shuangbaisaurus was carnivorous, as evidenced by the similarity of its jaw structure to Dilophosaurus and Sinosaurus.
"Shuangbaisaurus" comes from Shuangbai County, where the holotype was found; "saurus" is Greek for "lizard". "Anlongbao" comes from the township of Anlongbao (also spelled Alongbo) where the holotype was discovered, and translates into English as "dragon-placing fort"; "ensis" is Greek for "from".