Neuquén is the capital of the Argentinian province of Neuquén, also its most populous city, and is located in the Eastern-most part of the province.
The economy was mainly based on farming, but the discovery of gas and oil in the 1960s started a large economic stream for the city.
Neuquén was officially founded in 1904, after a railway system was built to the town by the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway company at the request of the Argentinian government to populate the town. The town grew greatly after the discovery of oil and gas in the province.
Neuquén's name comes from the Neuquén River, which itself was named "Nehuenken" by the native Mapuche people, meaning "drafty".